Bollards are an effective tool for creating clear visual barriers and physical protection. A long list of community planners and other stakeholders—including multiple levels of government, national organizations and academic researchers—have developed resources for planning effective installations.
Check out these resources for information on the following:
- Planning neighborhoods and walkable communities
- Selecting bollard types and evaluating applications
- Implementing traffic management strategies
An Existential Lesson in Curb Space: When Parking Is Not Always Parking
An article in the Online Journal of Suburban Design describes how downtown curb spaces can serve multiple functions. A redesigned neighborhood in Kitchener, Ontario shows how removable bollards provide variable accommodation for street parking and outdoor patios and restaurant seating.
Bicycle & Pedestrian: Bicycle Path Entry Control
Published on the Federal Highway Administration website, professional city and state planners provide a highly visual guide to planning effective barriers for non-motorized, shared-use paths. The authors present and evaluate several examples according to intended and actual use.
Build Protected Transit Lanes Using Cycletrack Bollards
An article posted on the Greater Greater Washington website looks at how strategies used to protect cycletrack lanes can also be implemented to improve bus lanes. Installing protective bollards can prevent unauthorized use for more efficient transit flow.
FHWA Study Tour for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety in England, Germany, and The Netherlands (1994)
Prepared for the US Department of Transportation, university, city and state representatives conducted a study of traffic calming strategies and pedestrian and bike facilities in European communities. The study also looked at education and promotional programs, regulation issues and enforcement.
Guidelines for the Installation of In-Roadway Warning Lights
The Traffic Engineering Division of the Virginia Department of Transportation provides information on how bollards can be used with pedestrian and crosswalk warning lights.
Project for Public Spaces Website: Traffic Calming 101
The Project for Public Spaces provides an introduction to traffic calming principles and goals. It includes a Traffic Calming Toolbox, which contains a comprehensive list of strategies and associated benefits.
Recreational Trails Program Website: Bollards Gates, and Other Barriers
Written in consultation with several state and city planners, this resource provides information on best practices for installing bollards, gates and other barriers on recreational trails.
Rethinking Bollards: How Bollards Can Save Lives, Prevent Injuries and Relieve Traffic Congestion in New York City (2007)
Published by Transportation Alternatives, Rethinking Bollards identifies traffic and safety issues in New York and presents recommendations for improved policy and deployment of bollards to increase walkability and safety. It provides information on the types of bollards available, how bollards can benefit streets and neighborhoods, and specific applications for bollards.
San Francisco Better Streets Plan: Policies and Guidelines for the Pedestrian Realm (2011)
The Better Streets Plan provides detailed information on designing streets, sidewalks and intersections to create a pedestrian-friendly environment. Conducted by the City of San Francisco, the plan represents a multi-year project involving public consultation. It is a resource for planners, decision-makers and other community stakeholders in designing safe, functional and attractive streetscapes. HTML bollard resources are also available.
State of the Art: Residential Traffic Management (1980)
Published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers, State of the Art outlines traffic management strategies for residential neighborhoods. Chapter 5 looks at issues in hindering mobility for emergency and service vehicles—and how different types of bollards can maintain regulated access for priority vehicles.
Surrey Council (UK) Website: Parking on Footways
The Surrey Council website provides information on how bollards can be used to prevent vehicle obstruction on pedestrian walkways. It includes best practices for bollard installations, including selecting appropriate bollards and planning optimal spacing.
The American Institute of Architects (AIA)
The American Institute of Architects is a professional membership association for licensed architects. Visit their website for information on and educational resources on architectural practices.
The Bollard: Non-Crash and Non-Attack-Resistant Models (2014)
Published by the National Institute of Building Sciences via the Whole Building Design Guide website, this article analyzes a range of bollard-types and associated issues with common applications—including safety and security, crime protection, environmental design and traffic calming. Extensive references link to related regulatory codes and rationales.
The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI)
The Construction Specifications Institute is a national association of construction professionals working to improve management of building information. Visit their website for information on CSI documentation and certified specifiers.
The Site Security Design Guide (2007)
Published by the US General Services Administration, The Site Security Design Guide provides strategies and information on how to plan installation of hardened perimeter barriers—including how to plan site assessments, selecting suitable barriers and what decorative/ornamental factors to consider. It provides a comprehensive look at planning effective perimeter security.
Traffic Calming: State of the Practice (1999)
Prepared for the US Department of Transportation by the Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Calming identifies best practices for traffic calming initiatives—including available strategies, design and application principles and key goals for planning and implementation. The report is based on survey information from 50 North American communities.
Trailheads and Trail Facilities: Proper Bollard Design for Trails Complements Fire Protection
This guide provides a resource for identifying issues in emergency response to city and wilderness trails. It looks at the potential challenges in installing bollards at trailheads and how these issues can be mitigated using different bollard designs.