Reliance Foundry offers a range of single and double flanged industrial cart wheels. Wheels can be used for a range of applications, including forestry kilns, factories, offshore loading areas and other commercial sites. All wheels are manufactured with a standard machine finish and can be further customized for specific applications. Reliance Foundry also produces fully customized wheels upon request. For more information on customization, contact Reliance Foundry's Sales Department.
This glossary provides a list of wheel-related terms to better understand the function and design of single and double flanged wheel manufacturing and application.
A material composed of at least one metal and one or more other elements (metal or nonmetal).
Steel alloyed with other elements (in addition to iron and carbon) to improve its mechanical properties. Common steel alloys include: manganese, nickel, chromium and molybdenum.
Heat treatment using high temperatures and slow cooling times to increase ductility or relieve internal stress.
A global organization that develops and publishes standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems and services. Previously, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
A machine element that reduces friction between moving parts within a restricted field of motion. Bearings can be installed into industrial wheels to ensure free turning on a fixed axle.
The interior diameter of the hole that fits around an axle.
The process of enlarging a previously drilled or cast wheel bore. Boring can be used to achieve a more accurate diameter or to create tapered bores.
A metal or nylon lining set into a wheel's bore to limit the size of an opening, resist abrasion or serve as a guide. A bushing can prevent friction and erosion between a wheel and axle.
Steel in which its main alloying element aside from iron is carbon—approximately 0.12–2.0 percent. Carbon steel may also refer to steel which is not stainless steel.
A manufacturing process that includes pouring molten metal into a hollow cavity, or mold, to achieve a desired shape. Once cooled, the solidified metal is removed or broken from the mold and may be machine ground to create a finished surface.
Double flanged wheel
A wheel with two flanges—one on either side of its tread.
Driven (or keyed) wheels
Wheels fixed to an axle, often with a keyed fitting. Wheels must rotate with an axle. Keyed wheels are typically used to transfer torque from a powertrain to provide a final driving force.
A material's ability to deform under tensile stress without fracturing. Ductility is the opposite of brittleness.
An external ridge around the edge of a wheel used to keep wheels on a track. Wheels are available with a single or double flange.
Flange diameter / Overall (OA) diameter
The overall diameter of the wheel, including the flange.
Grade (of steel)
A classification of composition and physical properties used to determine suitability of a material for specific applications. Grades may determine aspects such as strength and toughness, as well as the ability of a material to resist corrosion.
High carbon steel
Steel with a carbon content between approximately 0.30–1.70 percent. Higher carbon content makes for harder steels suitable for heat treatment and has a lower melting point than steels with a lower carbon content.
How much of a material that is hardened (measured in depth) during heat treatment.
The measure of how resistant a metal is to deformation under stress. Hardness is often associated with the measure of strength and/or toughness of a material. However, as a material becomes more resistant to deformation, it also becomes more brittle, making it more susceptible to fracture.
The use of temperature—heating or chilling—to alter the physical or chemical properties of a metal. Common heat treatment techniques include annealing, normalizing, precipitation strengthening, tempering and quenching, etc.
The center of a wheel—where a bearing can be housed.
Wheels installed with a bearing onto a fixed axle. Idler wheels turn independent of their axle. Idler wheels are the opposite of driven or fixed wheels.
Safe working load (load rating/capacity)
The maximum amount of weight a wheel can bear. To determine the required load capacity for a wheel within a vehicle assembly:
- Identify the total weight of the vehicle and its maximum load.
- Add an additional 25 percent (of the total weight) to allow a margin of error.
- Divide the total weight (including the additional 25 percent) by the number of wheels supporting the cart. The resulting number must be lower than the SWL of the wheel you intend to use.
Note: Identifying load requirements in this manner will only determine capacity for a wheel at rest. Other factors, such as the positioning of a load and travelling speed, can affect the overall required loads for individual wheels. For specific operations, an engineer should be consulted to determine the suitability of individual wheels for a project or work site.
The diameter of an axle to be fitted into the bore of a wheel.
Single flanged wheel
A wheel with a flange on one side of its tread.
The measure of a material's ability to withstand applied force without failure. Strength takes into account three forms of stress: 1) Compressive strength: The ability of a material to resist deformation from compressive loads—i.e. loads directed at reducing a material's size. 2) Tensile strength: The amount of stretching or pulling that a material will withstand without failing. 3) Shear strength: The ability to withstand a sliding failure from opposing forces applied parallel to each other through a material.
Heat treatment typically performed on hardened steel to increase ductility and relieve internal stress.
The ability of a material to absorb stress without fracturing. Toughness requires a balance of strength and ductility.
Track or rail size (or width)
The size (or width) of the track or rail on which the wheels will ride/operate.
The running surface, or portion of a wheel, that contacts the track or rail.
The diameter of the wheel between both flanges or the diameter of the running surface ("face") of the wheel. This is the diameter of the wheel that will contact the track.
The measure of a tread from one edge to the other—also referred to as the "face" of the wheel.